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RML Calculator
About Reverse Mortgage Loan (RML)
Reverse Mortgage Loan - Salient Features
Reverse Mortgage Loan (RML) enables a Senior Citizen i.e. above the age of 60 years to avail of periodical payments from a lender against the mortgage of his/her house while remaining the owner and occupying the house.
The Senior Citizen borrower is not required to service the loan during his/her lifetime and therefore does not make monthly repayments of principal and interest to the lender.
RMLs are extended by Primary Lending Institutions (PLIs) viz. Scheduled Banks and Housing Finance Companies (HFCs) registered with NHB.
The loan amount is dependent on the value of house property as assessed by the lender, age of the borrower(s) and prevalent interest rate.
The loan can be provided through monthly/quarterly/half-yearly/annual disbursements or a lump-sum or as a committed line of credit or as a combination of the three.
The maximum period of the loan is 20 years.
(The maximum period over which the payments can be made to the reverse mortgage borrower).
The loan amount may be used by the Senior Citizen borrower for varied purposes including up-gradation/ renovation of residential property, medical exigencies, etc. However, use of RML for speculative, trading and business purposes is not permissible.
Valuation of the residential property would be done at such frequency and intervals as decided by the reverse mortgage lender, which in any case shall be at least once every five years.
The quantum of loan may undergo revisions based on such re-valuation of property at the discretion of the lender.
The borrower(s) will continue to use the residential property as his/her/their primary residence till he/she/they is/are alive, or permanently move out of the property, or cease to use the property as permanent primary residence.
The lender will have limited recourse i.e. only to the mortgaged property in respect of the RML extended to the borrower.
All reverse mortgage loan products are expected to carry a clear and transparent ‘no negative equity’ or ‘non-recourse’ guarantee. That is, the Borrower(s) will never owe more than the net realizable value of their property, provided the terms and conditions of the loan have been met.
On the borrower’s death or on the borrower leaving the house property permanently, the loan is repaid along with accumulated interest, through sale of the house property.
The borrower(s)/heir(s) can also repay the loan with accumulated interest and have the mortgage released without resorting to sale of the property.
The borrower(s) or his/her heirs also have the option of prepaying the loan at any time during the loan tenor or later, without any prepayment levy.
Taxation Issues

The Finance Minister, in paragraph 89 of his speech, while presenting the Union Budget, 2007-08, had announced that the National Housing Bank (NHB) will introduce a reverse mortgage scheme for senior citizens.

In the context of the aforesaid scheme, it was necessary to resolve the tax issues arising there-from. The first issue is whether mortgage of property for obtaining a loan under the reverse mortgage scheme is transfer within the meaning of the Income-tax Act thereby giving rise to capital gains. Section 2(47) of the Income-tax Act provides an inclusive definition of ‘transfer’. Further, ‘transfer’ within the meaning of the Transfer of Properties Act includes some types of mortgage. Therefore, a mortgage of property, in certain cases, is a transfer within the meaning of section 2(47) of the Income-tax Act. Consequently, any gain arising upon mortgage of a property may give rise to capital gains under section 45 of the Income-tax Act. However, in the context of a reverse mortgage, the intention is to secure a stream of cash flow against the mortgage of a residential house and not to alienate the property.

A new clause (xvi) in section 47 of the Income-tax Act, 1961 has been inserted to provide that any transfer of a capital asset in a transaction of reverse mortgage under a scheme made and notified by the Central Government shall not be regarded as a transfer.

The second issue is whether the loan, either in lump sum or in instalment, received under a reverse mortgage scheme amounts to income. Receipt of such loan is in the nature of a capital receipt. Section 10 of the Income tax Act, 1961 has been amended to provide that any amount received by an individual as a loan, either in lump-sum or in installment, in a transaction of reverse mortgage referred to in clause (xvi) of Section 47 of the Income-tax act shall not be included in total income.

A borrower, under a reverse mortgage scheme, shall, however, be liable to income tax (in the nature of tax on capital gains) only at the point of alienation of the mortgaged property by the mortgagee for the purposes of recovering the loan.

© 2003 National Housing Bank